Kidney cancer is any cancer that originates in a kidney. The two most common types of kidney cancer, reflecting their location within the kidney, are renal cell carcinoma and renal pelvis carcinoma. The distinction between these two types is important because their most common histologies are different and consequently they respond differently to chemotherapy.
Around 208,500 new cases of kidney cancer are diagnosed in the world each year, accounting for just under 2% of all cancers. The highest rates are recorded in Northern America and the lowest rates in Asian and African regions.